Smart Moves to Make a Difference

'Resource Efficiency' - What is This?

resource efficiency6

Resource efficiency is about minimizing the ‘resources’ you as a business use – electricity, heating and transport fuel and water, without compromising on your needs. It includes your waste outputs too.

Why do you need it?

Two main reasons. First, it makes business sense – it is now more than evident that problems with resource insecurity and price volatility are on the rise everywhere, and resource efficiency is perhaps the best precautionary measure that a business could take against those. Also, resource efficiency is synonymous with cost savings.

Secondly, making your business operations more resource efficient reduces their environmental and social impacts. Resource efficiency is therefore a great way to bring about positive change in society and improve your company image.

Critical Steps

Data Monitoring

Establish your Baselines and Keep Monitoring

This hits the number one spot for a very good reason. The very most important thing you can do when considering your resource efficiency is to establish your baseline data, for as many of energy consumption, transport fuel consumption, water consumption and waste outputs as you can. Knowing your baselines is critical so you can identify at a second glance if something is awry. And we mean monitoring in terms of consumption, NOT costs, because costs can fluctuate greatly on a frequent basis.

Here’s Why

Business A

Prior to joining a resource efficiency programme similar to SPI, business A had often left it up to estimates to drive their electricity billing. Once in the programme, and starting to monitor data, they realised that that the estimates had been out by almost seven fold for both meters on their premises. This had been going on for so long that their overspend with their energy companies amassed to £18,000 and £24,000 at each meter respectively. This was in a building no bigger than the one you probably operate out of, approximately 1130 m2.

graph Business A

Figure 1: Graph of electricity consumption in Business A, prior to and following data monitoring.

High School B

high schoolThis example relates to High School B prior to closure in 2008 for a move to new premises. A member of the Energy Management team for the local authority had long suspected there be a problem with the water at the school, the use being two and three times the magnitude of other similar schools.

However, as the capital budget from which the bills were paid was much higher than the repairs budget, his concerns went unheard.

It was only on the closure of the school, when the usage remained almost the same as in operation that the issue was properly investigated. They found that some underground pipes which were no longer required and should have been closed off years previous had not been severed correctly, causing a huge leak. The overspend amounted to £20,000 per year for three years.

Here’s How

Electricity, Gas and Water Consumption

graphElectricity and gas should be measured in kilowatt hours (kWh).  Water is in cubic metres (m3)

Take meter readings once per month. Input these into your utility company online meter reads site or your own spread sheet.

At the start and every six months thereafter, take a reading first thing in the morning and before close of play each day for a week. This will tell you about your back ground consumption and if there are rogue items being left on overnight which should be switched off.

Other Heating Fuels – Oil, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) and So On

If you have a meter attached to your heating system which gives you the kilowatt hours (kWh) used then great, follow the instructions under ‘Electricity, Gas and Water Consumption’. If not, estimate the litres you use per month and record this on a spread sheet.

Again graph your trends and get used to how these go.

Transport Fuel Consumption

Delivery vanHave an expense system which records the amount of fuel used in litres or gallons already? Great then you have the consumption for your vehicles and it is just a case of graphing these up and monitoring trends.

If you have the mileage and make of your car you can estimate consumption using an online calculator like this one

If you don’t then it’s time to establish one. It’s very easy to set up, just ask that staff record the amount of fuel used to fill up at each stop every time they fill up. Amend your expenses forms so that they require this information to be authorised. Then use a spread sheet to keep a track.

Waste Production

Ecology symbol trash canKeep a tally on the frequency each of your bins is emptied and approximately how full it is for one month. Use the weight conversion tables here to convert this into tonnes (not forgetting to divide for looser materials, as given on the left hand side of the conversion sheet). This exercise alone should identify when bins are being emptied unnecessarily, given that they are not full and cut down on your costs.

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Electricity – LED Lighting

The largest component of a business’s cost and carbon foot print tends to be electricity. This transcends all sectors, from manufacturing to hospitality.  One of the best things you can do about this is to install LED (light emitting diode) lighting. This can cut the electricity consumption of your lighting ten fold in one swift move. It can cut your costs in bulb replacements considerably too, LEDs typically having a life of around 50,000 hours.

manufacturing graph5         hotels graph

Figure 2:  Average baseline foot print of SPI clients (SMEs of 10 to 49 employees); manufacturing and hotels.

This comes with a huge caveat. If your premises is warehouse style and you have plastic windows embedded into the roof have these cleaned or replaced with clear plastic before you consider LEDs. SPI client Rumbol Products in Clydebank had LED lighting fitted before replacing their windows, and now hardly need the lighting on at all.

Rumbol warehouse      Rumbol ceiling      Rumbol ceiling 2  Rumbol Products’ Warehouse       Old ceiling light         New ceiling light

It used to be the case that LEDs were best for spotlighting or more directional lighting and worked better in cold conditions. They now come across the board of bulb types including traditional GLs, candle bulbs and strip lights and work well in most conditions.  They are available for lease hire now too if you don’t want to stump up the upfront capital.

Quick Tips on LED Lighting

  • Work with a qualified lighting advisor, consultant or specialist electrician from an early stage. Check how long they have been in business and how many LED installations they have carried out.
  • Your LED replacements should match (or better) the lighting levels, or ‘lumens’ of your existing lights. Check the lumens per watt (lm/watt) against that existing.
  • Select LEDs with ceramic fins on the back as these provide the most effective means of getting rid of heat. Cheaper LEDs may come without this feature and will burn out before long.
  • In the case of strip lights retrofit onto existing fittings is now possible, but this will result in a reduced saving of around 30%. Gear should be changed to achieve optimum results.
  • Choose those which meet British standard BS EN 61000-4-4:2012 and which have a CE stamp.
  • Colour temperature 2000-3000k give a warm white light similar to traditional fittings.
  • Choose those with at least a five year guarantee.

When you are ready to purchase your LEDs, get a proposal from two or three suppliers. This should include

  • Power use of existing and new lighting with costs and an estimate of savings and payback
  • Expected performance in terms of light levels, colour and so on versus existing.
  • If the changes are like for like or not, with regard to number of fittings.

It is also a good idea to involve your staff from the outset.  Lighting levels can have a big effect on productivity as well as general well being. This will avoid problems of resistance at a later stage.

A range of costs, savings and paybacks for different SME types are given in Table 1. These are taken from smallest to largest install costs from the SPI programme.

Table 1

Table 1:  A range of costs, savings and paybacks for LED lighting for SPI SME clients of 10 to 49 employees.

For more details please consult the Carbon Trust’s guide on How to Implement LED Lighting.

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Heating - Renewables

The second largest component to that business cost and carbon foot print is heating. Owing to the continuation of a financial incentive called the ‘Renewable Heat Incentive (or ‘RHI’) it is still very cost effective for a business to consider a renewable heating system. RHI runs for twenty years for commercial outfits which means it can provide a handy funding stream as well as payback for your technology as opposed to domestic which only runs for seven years. Two forms of renewable heat source may be suitable for your business:

i/ Air Source Heat Pump Linked to Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels

AAir Source Heat Pumpir source heat pumps (ASHPs) run on electricity, but are far more efficient than conventional electrical heating and considered ‘renewable’ because they remove energy from outside air and convert this to more electricity. This occurs typically at a rate of one unit used to three produced.

Air Source Heat Pumps come in 2 forms:

  • Air: air , which provide heat via wall mounted blowers, and although are not covered by RHI can be bought relatively cheaply, for the same or less than a conventional gas system
  • Air: water, which provide heat through radiators and/or underfloor heating. These are more expensive but are covered by RHI.

Two options exist:

  • Low temperature systems requiring underfloor heating and large radiators. Ideal for customers changing from oil or electrical heating who don’t have existing radiators. Used for buildings with low heat losses, for example where there are good insulation levels.
  • High temperature systems which can be used with retrofit of an existing gas heating system with traditional sized radiators. Used in buildings with high heat losses, say where traditional insulation is difficult.

Both options can provide hot water.

Calculating returns on ASHPs through RHI should take into account heat losses. Please click here to download a handy calculator tool.

Example costings and payback through the RHI and electricity savings are given in Table 2. This is based on the RHI rate correct as of 7/5/15 and electricity prices both rising at 2% RPI year on year.

Table 2: Example costs, payback and income from a 16kW air source heat pump system. a – Providing hot water; b – total income is made up of 20 years RHI payments plus savings on electricity for this period both rising at 2% RPI year on year.

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Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Panels

Solar Panels with ManSolar PV panels generate electricity and are supported by the Feed In tariff (FIT). They would be ideal to link to an air source heat pump because they generate electricity during the day when most businesses require heat. They would therefore provide some or all of the load needed to run your air source heat pump.

A 23kW system would be large enough to support all the electricity needed to run the 16kW heat pump given in the example above. An estimate on costings and payback are given in table 3. This is based on the FIT rate correct as of 7/5/15 rising at a rate of 2% RPI year on year. Electricity savings have not been included as they have been accounted for in the air source heat pump calculations. A deemed export of 50% of electricity generated has been assumed. For more information on the FIT please click here.

Solar PV savingsTable 3: Example costs, payback and income from a 23kW solar PV system. c – Total income is made up of 20 years of FIT generation and deemed 50% export payments both rising at 2% RPI year on year.

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ii/ Biomass

‘Biomass’ heating involves burning wood to provide heat at a larger scale than a wood burning stove. It is usually linked to a ‘wet’ heating system ie: one with radiators. The wood burned can come in wood chips, pellets or logs and each system is specific for this. Other organic matter such as dried food waste (see Glenuig Inn case study), paper or cardboard can also be burned.

Biomass heating is also covered under the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI) and again it is attractive to businesses because it runs for twenty years as opposed to seven for domestic. The price of pellets, say, is pegged to gas and it is thought will not go higher than this. The boiler is therefore at a maximum the same price to run as a conventional gas boiler and the cost of the capital and then some will be paid to you through the RHI.

Costs and payback figures for a 199kW biomass system are given in Table 4. This is a large system furnishing a large factory or small district heating system. The figures are calculated on RHI payments for 20 years rising at a rate of 2% RPI year on year. The RHI tariff correct as of 11/5/15 has been used.

Table 4: Example costs, payback and income from a 199kW air source heat pump system. d – total income is made up of 20 years of RHI payments rising at 2% RPI year on year.

Points to Consider

Initial points to take into account when considering biomass include:

  • Space – do you have enough outside space for the boiler, a potential store for your fuel, and lorry access for delivery of fuel?
  • Existing heating system – do you have a wet heating system, with radiators? If so then biomass could fit. If not then a heat pump could be your best bet, as discussed above.

SPI client Glenhead Engineering installed a 199kW biomass boiler into their new premises in 2014 and as a result have cut their foot print considerably. Read their case study here.

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Water – Data Monitoring & Waterless Urinals

Water Data Monitoring

water tapIf you are going to monitor any utility please please please make it water. We refer to the example we gave earlier in the data monitoring section. Here are some facts to bring this more to life. A hotel with ten or twelve rooms uses 1m3 water per day which costs around £800 per year. Some underground water leaks can waste 10 to 20m3 per day equating to £8000 to £16,000 per year! Now you would notice this cost hike when you got your bills in but wouldn’t it be better to have a systematic method of monitoring consumption which would head this off before the start?

Waterless Urinals

drampacOne of the biggest ways a business can reduce its water consumption, and costs, is through installing waterless urinals. This cuts the flushing every few minutes to flushing only when used.

Our actual figures on this tell their own story. Drampac is a Dumbaron based packaging firm for the whisky industry who signed up for the SPI programme in 2013. They implemented a great many measures, one of which was to install waterless urinals. This reduced their water consumption by 16% and cut costs £1811 per annum. Read the full case study here.

Transport – Hybrid Vehicles & Fuel Efficient Driving

ecology carChange to Hybrid

Choosing the right company vehicles can deliver significant cost savings with short payback periods, in addition to reducing your carbon emissions.

Some of the most efficient hybrid cars, for example, would save you an average of £400 per year on fuel costs compared to a car with similar capabilities and within the same price range, with a payback period of less than a year and a half [1]

Plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles are also a smart option for business despite their higher upfront cost, which is eventually offset by their low running cost. Plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles are eligible for a government grant of up to £5000 per car and up to £8000 per van [2]

Fuel Efficient Driving

Adopting a number of simple driving habits, such as switching off your engine during short breaks and driving at lower RPM rates, can reduce your fuel consumption considerably. Peer-reviewed research suggests that eco-driving can reduce fuel consumption by an average of 10% [3]Barkenbus, J. N. (2010). Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative. Energy Policy, 38(2), 762-769..

More information about financial incentives for electric and hybrid vehicles as well as fuel efficient driving is available on the Energy Savings Trust’s website.

Waste – Think Simple & Zero Waste


Think Simple . With the waste to landfill tax being higher now than ever and increasing legislation to adhere to when it comes to waste there has never been a better time to consider cutting down your waste streams.

We would advocate you follow the waste hierarchy of reduce, re-use and only then recycle to most effectively achieve this (see Effective Management of Your Waste). There are loads of simple little ways you can do this, it’s not rocket science!

The SPI programme has many examples of businesses reducing their waste through re-design at the outset.  Some examples of note are:

Man at MachineNPI Solutions, a precision engineering firm in Irvine who have started buying slightly longer sheets of steel so that two circuit boards can be cut from them. The shorter piece allowed for one circuit board and the rest was given up to waste.

Hkate's kitchenomeless charity Kate’s Kitchen, who’s chef has redesigned their menu to cut down on food waste. Wastage is almost eliminated now.

Queen’s Hotel and The Hair Boutique who give boxes straight back to their suppliers when anything is delivered.

Examples of re-use include:

galloway lodgePreserves manufacturer Galloway Lodge, who never buy in boxes for their deliveries using instead boxes which have come in with supplies.

Manufacturing outfit Diamonddiamond power Power Speciality Ltd, who have eliminated the need to buy polystyrene sheets by re-using that which comes in with supplies. They also re-use their waste wood in their recently installed biomass boiler.

Urr Valley Hotel, who feed their food waste – to their pigs!

Zero Waste

It is actually very simple these days with perhaps a dedicated member of staff and a little forethought to go completely Zero Waste. This can pay dividends for your business, not only in reducing waste costs right down, but in the kudos and potential new clients it can bring. SPI client Tartan Rocket won the catering contract for the Commonwealth Games in 2014 because of their compostable packaging range and the fact that their service was entirely Zero Waste. Read their case study here.

Diamond Power Speciality Ltd in Renton, West Dunbartonshire are a manufacturing business who are entirely Zero Waste. Their journey to Zero Waste is given in the Case Studies section below.

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Support and Funding

Resource Efficient Scotland provides a one stop shop for all business needs on resource efficiency. They are found at or by calling 0808 808 2268.RES

Resource Efficient Scotland have announced the continuation of their Implementation Fund for 2015. This funds an employee to implement an agreed resource efficiency project typically lasting 3 to 6 months. The fund gives out £5,000 to £20,000.  The 2015 deadline is 30th June.

Green Business Network – Find a ‘green’ business near you which has implemented some resource efficiency actions and noticed a real difference. OR, join the Green Business Network yourselves! Click here for more information.

scot_gold_masterAn eco-friendly tourism business looking to develop and fly the flag of your ‘green’ credentials? Certification through ‘Green Tourism’ may be for you. Find out more by clicking here. Our carbon neutral case study business Glenuig Inn achieved a Green Tourism Gold Award and have reaped the benefits.


Trip Advisor’s Green Leaders – Trip Advisor’s own certification scheme which reveals your green credentials to potential visitors. Click here to find out more.

vibes awardsBusinesses of any sector can become recognised through the VIBES awardsVision in Business for the Environment of Scotland. The list of winners includes Rabbie’s coach tours and SPI client Cream O Galloway. You too stand a chance of winning. For more information click here 

Case studies

A Resource Efficient Business – Glenhead Engineering

glenhead logoGlenhead Engineering, a precision engineering company based in Clydebank, West Dunbartonshire, managed to reduce their carbon footprint by 39% after implementing a number of resource efficiency measures to their waste stream, electricity consumption, and heating. Read their full story here.

The Journey to Zero Waste – Diamond Power

D power heading2

A Journey to Zero Waste

d power pic1 d power pic2 d power pic3

Diamond Power Specialty Ltd in Dumbarton is a manufacturer of boiler cleaning equipment. They joined the SPI programme with the aim of becoming more resource efficient, and have not only achieved this but have placed resource efficiency at the heart of their business decision making processes. They have been Zero Waste since October 2012, prior to joining the programme.

Diamond Power’s Journey to Zero Waste


Ddiamond poweriamond Power were driven to achieve Zero Waste both by standards and the interest and commitment of key staff.  ISO 14001 and  Macam – Management Assessment Compliance Audit Manual, a stateside Health and Safety standard both require continual process improvement, including of waste processes through the Do Act Review Improve methodology. The critical factor to their success, though, has been the vision of their Maintenance Manager who when newly appointed in 2011 was shocked at the waste he witnessed leaving the factory. He saw the process as being costly and uncontrolled with up to 26 skips leaving the factory at one time, often with little waste in them.

d power waste

His aim was to reduce this at source and via re-use and recycle what was left over.

Physicalities of the Process

Diamond Power created a waste map to have clear visibility of what waste they were producing, where it was produced, where it was stored and which contractors were responsible for collecting it. They then created a process diagram of what they wanted their waste processes to look like, including what was to be recycled and where and the new way this was to be collected. This is shown in the image below (click on the image for a better view).

waste map

Figure 1:  Diamond Power’s waste process diagram.

They also used their ISO 14001 Aspects and Impacts Register for waste to create the equivalent of a waste ‘Opportunities Checklist’ and ‘Action Plan’.

A suite of tools which can be used sequentially or stand alone in moving towards waste minimisation and zero waste is given below.

Waste map/site layout waste diagram

Process flowchart

Waste process map

Opportunities Checklist

Action Plan

Examples of these along with extra guidance can be found on the Resource Efficient Scotland website at

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Action Plan


Diamond Power’s purchasing department are tasked with procuring as sustainably as possible and strive to minimise the amount of packaging coming in with supplies. Wood is a major raw material used for and is purchased strictly according to FSC standards.


Diamond Power reuse a good deal of unavoidable packaging entering their factory for products going out. This includes polystyrene which they use instead of buying polystyrene sheets.

They have also begun using their waste wood to fuel their recently installed 3kW biomass boiler which serves as a pilot to test out a bigger investment in biomass.


Diamond Power have fully segregated, clearly labelled recycle bins throughout all of their premises. They collect plastics, glass, paper and card and where appropriate food waste from the offices and canteens. They also recycle paint fillers, metal swarf (chips or filings), mixed metal, coolant, oil contaminated rags and empty paint drums from their factory floor.

Staff Training

Diamond Power recognised the importance of ensuring staff are bought into and following procedures on waste minimisation. They also actively engage staff to help improve procedures. They do this via an ongoing system of staff training, the ‘Tool Box’ system, which often focusses on aspects of resource efficiency including waste minimisation. Training on resource efficiency now also forms a core part of staff induction training.

Reductions Due to Waste

The results of their waste minimisation were instant, even before achieving full Zero Waste. Within 10 months their waste to landfill was down by 50%, simply by increasing recycling. Since becoming ‘Zero Waste’ in October 2012 they reduce and re-use where possible, recycle 90% of the remainder and have the last 10% processed as contaminated waste, which is then also recycled. In addition they now generate an income by segregating their metals, so where they had costs they now have revenue.

The graph below shows Diamond Power’s green house has (GHG) emissions from waste per full time employee. Their present figure (for 2014) is compared with their baseline in the SPI programme (2012/13) and the average for engineering businesses in the SPI programme. It can be seen that their current emissions are almost half of baseline and the average for the sector.

d power benchmark2

Figure 2:  Diamond Power’s waste greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per full time employee.

d power waste emissions

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Next Steps

Further Reductions

Diamond Power plan to reduce their spend by a further £4,000 per month with the purchase of a compressor to compact their waste and reduce the bulk handled by their waste contractor. They additionally plan to start sorting more of waste on site, a move which could potentially save them a further £17,000 per annum.

What is more, they have an eye on a project being piloted by Scottish Water which used food waste in anaerobic digestion to decontaminate waste water as a useful avenue for their food waste.

The Circular Economy

CE d powerDiamond Power have a bulk of steel off-cuts which, although are currently taken off-site and recycled they would prefer to trade with a nearby manufacturing company for use as a raw material. A step into the circular economy, this will herald a new level of sustainability for the business.

Award and Certificate

Because of their performance with the SPI programme, including their continual improvements with Zero Waste, Diamond Power were given a gold certificate and award for ‘Aligning Sustainability with Business Plan’ through the SPI programme in March 2015. Our photograph shows them receiving these accolades along with other West Dunbartonshire prize winners.

d power group photo

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A Carbon Neutral Business – Glenuig Inn

glenuig inn title

A Carbon Neutral Business

Glscot_gold_masterenuig Inn, lying on the shores of the Sound of Arisaig can now state with confidence that they have reduced their carbon emissions by 100%. This has actually covibes awardsme about as the by-product of a strategy to cement the long term economic sustainability of the business.

Glenuig Inn is made up of an old, pre-1745 main inn building with restaurant, kitchens and a bunkhouse alongside a modern accommodation building with en-suite guest rooms. The old inn building has been developed in a way that utilises the benefits of the building mass in conjunction with modern breathable materials. By combining this with energy sources that match both the seasons and the seasonality of the business the effect is a building, and business that has energy efficiency at its core. This combined with the other changes Glenuig have made makes for a truly sustainable business.

1. The Built Environment

Glenuig ImageGlenuig Inn is atypical in design with its modern accommodation building juxtaposed to a traditional old inn building pre-dating 1745. The old but renovated inn building now has higher levels of thermal efficiency than the modern accommodation block. This has been achieved through applying well above the standard levels of external insulation, cladding the two foot thick stone and lime mortar walls and roof. This is in addition to the inherent thermal efficiency of the traditional building mass.

2. Heat Recovery from Refrigeration

The Inn’s refrigeration units have been strategically placed in a cool room from which the heat they emit is extracted and retained in other parts of the building. The cool room is kept at a constantly low temperature through free cooling using outside air. This means the fridges, freezers, and temperature controlled beer cellar are working in an ideal ambient temperature to maintain their own cool temperatures.

3. Entire site now run on 100% renewable energy

Power is provided via three renewable means for the whole site:

  • A biomass pellet boiler and wood burning stoves which provide heating and hot water
  • 100% green electricity provided by nearby hydro schemes
  • Solar thermal system which feeds into the heating and hot water system

4. Induction hobs for cooking.

5. Fully controllable and dimmable LED lighting. The old sodium lighting has now been removed from the site too, cutting not only electricity consumption but also light pollution.

6. Waste: Reducing, Re-Using and Recycling

Glenuig Inn minimise waste mainly at the ‘reduce’ and ‘re-use’ stages of the waste hierarchy. Every item that can be is bought in bulk rather than individually packaged, and this applies across cleaning products, guest soaps, kitchen food and retail food items. They create their own menu comprising bread, starters, mains (including smoked items from their recently added smokery) and desserts in house. The ingredients Glenuig Inn uses are as local, natural, healthy and organic as they can source. This policy reduces waste, packaging and food miles as well as creating a customer experience more connected to food quality, source and sustainability.

Legislation requires food waste from all food businesses be handled separately, and from January 2016 this will also apply to all rural areas. Glenuig Inn is a step ahead of this, having removed waste food and food contaminated items (eg napkins) from their waste-stream entirely by drying it and burning it in the pellet biomass boiler. As of early 2015 no food waste leaves the Glenuig Inn premises.

All remaining dry recyclate waste is separated and sent on for recycling.

Long Term Viability

The green credentials of Glenuig Inn stand in their own merit. This aside, the turnaround of the business since adopting this strategy speaks for itself. The annual energy bill of the business is the same in 2014 as it was in 2005 despite the business growing to twice its size in the intervening period and energy prices rising approximately three fold. The business now makes an annual profit compared with a previous decade and a half of losses. Glenuig Inn green development project was taken on initially as a proof of concept that an old, traditional building could be made energy efficient by today’s standards. It has grown into a holistic project eliminating wastage across the board and demonstrates that financial and environmental sustainability can run naturally alongside one and other. In this case environmental sustainability has been the product of a strategy to create a long term, viable business.

steven macfarlaneSteve Macfarlane of Glenuig Inn comments The main rationale for our green development at Glenuig has been ensuring long term economic viability of the business. Delivering on environmental sustainability is a bonus as we drive our particular green, self reliant, confident, agenda to better our bottom line”.

gold status best vibes

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     electric car     nice waste     tap1

References   [ + ]

3. Barkenbus, J. N. (2010). Eco-driving: An overlooked climate change initiative. Energy Policy, 38(2), 762-769.

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